An interesting segment in China’s cosmopolitan empire: the Tang dynasty (Lewis, 2009):
V.J. Butanaev writes:
This is especially interesting when you consider how the metallurgical prowess of the Türks had, by the sixth century, already famously situated them as the “blacksmith slaves” of the Jou-jan/Juan-juan/Rou-ran Kaghanate (against whom, under the leadership of Bumin, they successfully revolted with the assistance of the Wei Dynasty), and how the Yenisei Kirghiz appear to be described as working meteoric iron by the time of their appearance in Tang records. More on this later.
Butanaev, V.J. (2004). Linguistic Reflections of Xakas Ethnohistory, in E.J. Vajda (Ed.), Languages and Prehistory of Central Siberia (pp. 215-34). Amsterdam – Philadelphia: John Benjamins.